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Thread: Remembering Savitri Devi

  1. #1
    Breckinridge Elkins Guest

    Default Remembering Savitri Devi

    Greg Johnson

    Savitri Devi was a philosopher, a religious thinker, and a tireless polemicist and activist for the causes of animal rights, European pagan revivalism, Hindu Nationalism, German National Socialism, and — after the Second World War — pan-European racial nationalism.

    She was born Maximine Portaz born in Lyons, France on September 30, 1905. Her mother, Julia Nash was English, descending from Viking stock. (The name Nash is derived from Ash, as in the World Ash Tree.) Her father, Maxim Portaz, was three fourths Italian from Savoy, one fourth Greek. Because of her mixed-European heritage, she identified herself simply as “European.”

    For an account of her life and work, read R. G. Fowler’s tribute to Savitri Devi on her 100th birthday: “Woman Against Time: Remembering Savitri Devi’s 100th Birthday.” German translation here, French translation here, Norwegian translation here.

    Savitri Devi died on October 22, 1982 in Sible Hedingham, Essex, England at the home of her friend Muriel Gantry. For a sad account of her passing, see Muriel Gantry’s “The Last Days of Savitri Devi,” selected from her correspondence by R. G. Fowler.

    For more information on Savitri Devi’s life, work, and influence see R. G. Fowler’s website The Savitri Devi Archive.

    Four of Savitri Devi’s books are currently in print in English and available for purchase here. For an ideal introduction to Savitri Devi’s life and work, see And Time Rolls On: The Savitri Devi Interviews. For her views on animal rights, vegetarianism, and Deep Ecology, see her manifesto Impeachment of Man. For accounts of her clandestine propaganda activities in Occupied Germany see Gold in the Furnace: Experiences in Occupied Germany. On her subsequent arrest, trial, and imprisonment, see Defiance: The Prison Memoirs of Savitri Devi. (Also check out Alex Kurtagić’s reviews of Gold in the Furnace here and Defiance here.)

    For information on forthcoming volumes by Savitri Devi, including the long-awaited republication of the complete and unabridged edition of The Lightning and the Sun, see The Savitri Devi Archive News page.


  2. #2
    Join Date
    May 2010


    The strange case of Savitri Devi

    By Koenraad Elst

    Swami Vivekananda once told Christian missionaries that their vilification of Hinduism outweighed all the mud in the ocean. Since then, the stream of defamatory mud thrown at Hinduism has only increased. A new line employed by Evangelists, Communists and others is to associate Hinduism with Nazism. Doesn't the swastika tell it all? And the Sanskrit term "Aryan"? Aha!

    Contrived and malafide as this rhetoric may be, it can hold one or two individuals up as examples of Hitlerian Hindus. In his new book, Hitler's Priestess. Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan Myth, and Neo-Nazism (New York University Press 1998), Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke tells the story of Savitri Devi Mukherji, a French-Greek lady who made a synthesis of her admiration for Hitler with her own rather personal version of Hinduism. She was born on 30 September 1905 in Lyon, France, as Maximiani Portas, daughter of a Greek father and an English mother. Extremely gifted, she was to earn an MA in Science and a Ph.D. in Liberal Arts. Early on, she developed strong political sympathies and antipathies, and these would become the chief determinants of her strange itinerary, which included India.

    Ideological development

    When Maximiani came of age, she opted for the Greek nationality, and spent several years in Greece. In 1929, she visited Palestine, where she witnessed the budding conflict between Palestinians and Jewish settlers; her sympathy was with the former. Anti-Semitism was a predominant attitude in pre-1940 France, both Left and Right, and she had imbibed it early on. Enamoured with ancient Greek culture, Maximiani repudiated Christianity, though retaining its anti-Semitic prejudice. Her main objection to Christianity was its anthropocentrism, its doctrine that God had entrusted man with the rulership over all other creatures. This critique of Biblical anthropocentrism has recently been revived by the ecological movement, whose radical fringe denies that mankind is worth more than other species. Maximiani rejected the love of mankind in favour of an ethical vitalism which she found in National-Socialism, with "its scale of values, centred not on 'man' but on life".

    From her ideal of "Hellenism", she reoriented towards the "Aryan" doctrines propagated by the Nazis. Ever since Charles Darwin, culture was seen by many as but a side effect of a biological quality, and consequently, the Indo-European language family was identified with a hypothetical Aryan race. The linguistic "Aryanization" of India by white Aryan invaders from Europe formed a complete case study of all that the upcoming racist worldview stood for:

    · first, whites had expressed their natural dynamism by trekking to distant horizons, unlike the indolent dark-skinned people who never left their shores;

    · then, the whites had proven their superiority by subduing the dark-skinned natives;

    · next, with their healthy race consciousness, they had tried to preserve their racial purity by imposing the caste system on themselves and the natives, preventing intermarriage between white conquerors and dark natives as much as possible;

    · but unfortunately, some racial mixing did nonetheless take place and turned the white invaders into brown-skinned half-breeds, their intellectual and military qualities deteriorated, and they became an easy and legitimate prey for European colonizers who had preserved their racial purity.

    This way, the Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT) was a cornerstone of the modern racist worldview. As Savitri Devi herself reported: "In the Third Reich, even school-children knew from their textbooks that the Aryan race had spread from the north to the south and east, and not the other way around." She also believed in the AIT annexe that caste is a racial Apartheid system, with the Aryan invaders as upper and the "aboriginals" as lower castes.

    The Hindu connection

    Using the money her deceded father left her, Maximiani went to India and, with two brief interruptions, she was to stay there from 1932 until 1945, and again in 1957-60 and 1971-81. She studied Hindi and Bengali at Rabindranath Tagore's Shanti Niketan school and travelled around the country. Feeling ready to face Indian audiences, she offered her services as an anti-Christian preacher to Swami Satyananda's Hindu Mission in Calcutta. In 1937-39, under her given Hindu name Savitri Devi, she toured the tribal villages and had the chiefs organize public debates between herself and the local missionaries. Thoroughly familiar with the mentality and methods of her adversary, she could destroy the credit of the imported religion in the minds of the villagers, and prevent or undo many conversions. There was a sharp contradiction between her own racist and anti-egalitarian convictions and the reformist and egalitarian programme of the Hindu Mission. To the Hindu Mission, Hinduism was a value in itself; to Savitri Devi, it was but an instrument of her imagined Aryan race. In her years as a preacher, she kept her non-Hindu preoccupations to herself, but in her memoirs (Souvenirs et Réflexions d'une Aryenne, French: "Memories and Reflec-tions of an Aryan Lady", Delhi 1976), she declared that she conceived of her reconversion mission as an exercise in deception: "From the racist Aryan view-point, it was necessary to give the most backward and degenerate aborigines a (false) Hindu consciousness."

    In contrast with the Hindu nationalists, but in tune with Indian Marxists and casteists, she believed that the concept "nation" and a programme of "nationalism" could not apply to India. In 1938, she used the slogan: "Make every Hindu an Indian nationalist, and every Indian nationalist a Hindu". In her autobiography, however, she rejected this slogan on the plea that a "nation" could only consist of racially similar individuals, not of racially distinct communities, as she thought the castes to be. To genuine Hindu activists, this position is scandalous. It expresses exactly the motives which anti-Hindu authors falsely attribute to Hindu nationalism, because these motives logically follow from the racist theory of caste which Indian casteists and Marxists share with Savitri Devi, but which is rejected by the Hindu vanguard. At any rate, she gave her assent to claims routinely made in anti-Hindu literature, e.g.:

    · Islam and Christianity are religions of equality;

    · converts from Hinduism to Islam or Christianity were attracted by these religions' caste-free egalitarianism;

    · India is not and never has been a nation.

    These are exactly the ideas propagated by Indian Communists and Christian missionaries. With friends like Savitri Devi, Hinduism didn't need enemies.

    However, the positions quoted were uttered only in Savitri Devi's later writings, not in the pre-War period when she was in touch with Hindu leaders including Subhash Bose and G.D. Savarkar, brother of V.D. Savarkar and writer of a foreword to her booklet A Warning to the Hindus (Calcutta 1939). Her most consequential acquaintance was with Dr. Asit Krishna Mukherji, the only Indian who could honestly be described as a Nazi. Numerous Indians were enthusiastic about Hitler's challenge to Britain's world domination, but Mukherji was the only one with a comprehensive knowledge of Nazi doctrine. He had studied history in London and travelled in the Soviet Union, but his interest was drawn by the rising discourse of race, enthroned as state doctrine in Germany in 1933. In 1935-37, he published a pro-Nazi bimonthly, the New Mercury. Savitri Devi met him on 9 January 1938, and their conversation immediately turned to Nazi doctrine, especially its alleged esoteric roots. According to Goodrick-Clarke, Mukherji was an early believer in the popular claim that the Thule Society, one of many reactionary political clubs in Munich ca. 1920, was a "secret initiatory society behind the open political movement of National Socialism". In an earlier publication, The Occult Roots of Nazism (London 1992), Goodrick-Clarke himself has cut such myths to size and debunked the "wholly spurious 'facts' concerning the powerful Thule Society, the Nazi links with the East, and Hitler's occult initiation".

    After the outbreak of the war, Savitri Devi risked being expelled from India, so Mukherji offered to marry her. She described it as a chaste marriage, concluded purely for passport reasons. Chastity in marriage may have suited Mukherji as a believer in the yogic powers conferred by sexual abstinence. His bride, by contrast, was very open-minded and easy-going about sexuality and had had affairs with men as well as women.

    Mukherji played a key role in the contacts between Subhash Bose and Axis representatives. He also spied for the Japanese during the war, but there are indications that he was a double agent, which would explain why he was left untouched eventhough Calcutta was the nerve centre of the Anglo-American operations against Japan. Savitri spent the War years writing books on Pharaoh Akhenaton (r. 1383-66 BC), the first known prophet of monotheism. She chose him as her preferred deity in her Bhakti practice, after a jewel she bought in Delhi displayed a solar symbol known from Akhenaton's inscriptions; she took this as a divine hint. She had taken up devotional yoga when a yoga master judged that her nerves could not stand the discipline of more straightforward forms of meditation.

    The Nazi connection

    After the war, Mukherji made a living as an astrologer, until he took ill and fasted unto death in March 1977. His wife returned to Europe for a "pilgrimage" in devastated Germany. She started distributing pro-Nazi handbills and was arrested for this by British soldiers. Sentenced to three years in prison, she became friends with her fellow inmates: former guards of the women's sections of the concentration camps. The suffering of old Nazis under the Allied repression formed the material for her first openly Nazi book, Gold in the Furnace (1949): she saw the 1945 defeat as but a test for the true Hitlerians, who would come out of it strengthened and ultimately victorious.

    Savitri Devi exalted Hitler as a "man against time" who tried to uphold "Aryan" virtues against the degeneracy of modern times. In her most important book, The Lightning and the Sun (1958), she saw him as the third member of a historic trinity: Akhenaton, the first monotheist, the "sun"; Chengiz Khan, the greatest conqueror, the "lightning"; and Hitler, who combined the Pharaoh's philosophical depth with the Khan's martial prowess... In 1960, after a decade of wandering, often using her maiden name to enter countries where "Savitri Devi" was blacklisted, she settled down in France, where she eked out a living as a schoolteacher, occasionally causing trouble for herself by voicing denials of the Holocaust in class. After 1969, she was entitled to a small pension, just enough for her to live in India. In 1982, already unable to read or to walk unaided, she prepared for a lecture tour as an invitee of the American Nazi Party. On her way to the US, she stayed in a friend's house outside London, where she took ill and died from heart failure during her sleep. Her ashes were transferred to Arlington, Virginia, where the Nazi Party gave them a place of honour in its shrine.

    Views on religion

    One observation which emerges from Savitri Devi's ideological writings, is that she had a rather confused view of religion. If she opposed the Christian destruction of Pagan temples, why did she venerate Akhenaton, the first known temple-destroyer, the first known believer in a single god intolerant of others? Why did she extol Chengiz Khan? Why did she persist in the Christian hatred of the Jews, when the last Pagan Emperor of Rome, Julian the Apostate (to whom she dedicated her A Warning to the Hindus), preferred the Jews to the Christians and planned to rebuild the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem?

    Savitri Devi's view of the religious dimension of Hitlerism was equally fanciful. She wrote that Nazism had the "capability of becoming very fast, once associated with rituals, a real religion." But Hitler himself opposed those among his fans who dreamed of a new religion. In Mein Kampf, he affirmed that the Nazi movement "is not a religious reform but a political reorganization of the German people", and that "it is criminal to try and destroy the accepted faith of the people as long as there is nothing to replace it". Hitler took a purely instrumental view of religion. He appreciated Christianity for inculcating family values (good for the birth rate), anti- Semitism and obedience to authority; for its historical role in uniting the Germanic tribes under Charlemagne; and for having extended Germany eastward under the Teutonic Knights. On the other hand, he was irritated by Christian opposition to his eugenic policies, e.g. forced euthanasia of the handicapped. For such reasons, and because of the destructive role which religion had played in German history (the religious Thirty Years' War in 1618-48 killed one third of the German population), Hitler followed the policy of German rulers like Frederick II and Otto von Bismarck who had wisely kept religion separate from politics. His commitment was not to any one religion, but to the German people. Early on in his reign, Hitler appeased but sidelined the Christian Churches with a Concordat, and dissolved all neo-Pagan associations. After the bizarre flight of his deputy Rudolf Hess, a vegetarian dabbling in Buddhism, he had all unconventional religionists arrested, because the event confirmed his suspicion that spiritual seeker types were unreliable. Though nominally a Roman Catholic till the end of his life, one thing to remember about him is: Hitler was a secularist.

    The Aryan theory

    Considering the tainted connotations of the Aryan Invasion Theory and its caste-racist annexe, it is remarkable that Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke entirely shares with Savitri Devi the belief in the Aryan invasion and the racial theory of caste. The AIT has been the dominant paradigm for over a century and still is, so a non-specialist can be forgiven for uncritically accepting it. By contrast, the racial theory of caste is now a marginalized doctrine, championed only by people with a political agenda. It is espoused by white racists in the West and by ethnic separatists in India, strongly patronized and tutored by Christian missionaries. Goodrick-Clarke never questions Savitri Devi's view of caste as a racial apartheid system resulting from the "Aryan invasion", actually a 19th-century projection of the colonial situation onto the past. But in 1948 already, the Marxist scholar O.C. Cox rejected the projection of modern race prejudice onto ancient cultures: "The early Indo-Aryans could no more have thought in modern terms of the race prejudice than they could have invented the airplane". In the same year, Dalit leader Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar recapitulated the findings of physical anthropology to conclude that "the Brahmins and the Untouchables belong to the same race". It seems Goodrick-Clarke isn't aware of this debunking job. Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke doesn't see anything historically wrong in the romantic eulogy to the ancient Hindu hero Rama by the orientomanic French poet Charles Leconte de Lisle (1818-94): "Thou whose blood is pure, thou whose skin is white, (...) resplendent subduer of the profane races". He quotes it from Savitri Devi's own frequent references to this sheet-anchor of her Aryan convictions, and seems to be sharing her belief that Rama was a white Aryan racist whose campaign against Ravana typifies the Aryan conquest of Dravidian South India. But in the Ramayana, Ravana's ancestry is traced to the Vedic sage Pulastya, Rama's to the pre-Vedic Aryan patriarch Ikshvaku. Their struggle was one between two Aryans, both of them dark-skinned.

    Hitler vs. Hindu nationalism

    In his description of the Hindu nationalist movement in the 1930s and 40s, Goodrick-Clarke depends on secondary and hostile sources. That may well be why he fails to notice the profound estrangement between Savitri Devi and the Hindu nationalists after 1940. Though he admits that "the subsequent success of Hindu nationalism after the Second World War does not form part of Savitri Devi's story", he does generally pretend that Hindu nationalism is the present incarnation of Savitri Devi's ideology, "upper-caste racism" which seeks to "restore upper-caste authority".

    Given Hindutva's reformism, Savitri Devi's love affair with the movement was understandably short-lived. In her memoirs, she laments that the reformist Arya Samaj doesn't share her enthusiasm for caste inequality: "The Arya Samaj is Aryan only in name, for it rejects the natural hierarchy of the races". What is at stake here is the arrogant policy of Westerners, first to steal the cultural term Arya and distort its meaning in a racist sense, then to protest when Hindus fail to respect this new and distorted usage. Another telling lament: "How many Hindus were there among the Aryan castes who, like Sri A.K. Mukherji, fully understood the profound significance of Hitlerism, and supported it because of it? Very few, certainly!"

    That many ordinary Hindus admired Hitler deserves an explanation. It is a serious defect in the Hindu character that all kinds of shady individuals are easily embraced in the bosom of Hindu pluralism. The mere sight of someone, anyone, worshipping an idol, any idol, is enough for them to also pay their respects to the same idol. When Hindus glorify Jesus or Mohammed, all Indian secularists and Western India-watchers applaud this exercise in mindless sentimentalism as "secular", as a "defeat of the communal forces". It is exactly the same psychology, eager to please non-Hindus and exult along with them in their adoration of non-Hindu idols, which tricked some gullible Hindus into glorifying Hitler.

    At the same time, many Hindu nationalists opposed Hitler. Savitri Devi noted with indignation that Sri Aurobindo supported the British war effort against the Nazis on ideological grounds, as when he declared: "Hitlerism is the greatest menace the world has ever met -- if Hitler wins, do they think India has any chance of being free? It is for two reasons I support the British in this war: first in India's own interest and secondly for humanity's sake. Hitler stands for diabolical values". V.D. Savarkar, far from supporting the German war effort (as Goodrick-Clarke falsely alleges), called on Hindu young men to join the British Army and gain combat experience in the struggle against the Axis powers. In 1948, he was the only leader of India's freedom struggle to give a passionate welcome to the new state of Israel, which has since then always enjoyed the sympathy of the Hindutva movement, but which was evil incarnate to Savitri Devi. No wonder that in her 338-page memoirs, Savitri Devi refuses to mention the Hindutva leaders and organizations even once.

    Savitri Devi's usefulness

    Goodrick-Clarke's book Hitler's Priestess will be used as a stick with which to beat Hindu nationalism. With him, many "secularists" will enthusiastically sustain the confusion embodied in his notion of a "Hindu-Aryan myth", viz. that the European racist notion "Aryan" was borrowed as such from Hinduism. Now that all the hysterical predictions of how a BJP government would enact Nazi policies have proven completely far-fetched and slanderous, this book will be employed in an effort to trump reality with a tragic woman's private Hitlerian fantasies.

    Hindus ought to set up their own anti-defamation league. Such a body could sue neo-Nazi groups for misusing Hindu symbols like the swastika and the term Arya. It could also issue rebuttals to the misleading and defamatory message in publications like Goodrick-Clarke's latest.

    Dr. Koenraad Elst is a Belgian Indologist. In his forthcoming book The Saffron Swastika (Voice of India, Delhi 2001) he provides a detailed discussion of the notion "Hindu fascism", including the case of Savitri Devi.
    THE DEVIL'S DICTIONARY 1911 EJECTION, n. An approved remedy for the disease of garrulity. It is also much used in cases of extreme poverty. Harshest ejections and death to the Fuh

  3. #3
    Join Date
    May 2010


    The following interview is done with R.G. Fowler, the archivist of savitridevi.org and the general editor of the centennial edition of Savitri Devi's works. Most of you haven't heard of Savitri Devi, to no fault of your own, for prior to Fowler's website there was literally no information available anywhere on the internet about her. Moreso, outside of her most famous book, The Lightning and the Sun, nearly all of her writings were out of print. Thankfully, all of this has changed. It is our honor to help shed light on this enigmatic and mysterious woman. Savitri's writings are as important today as they were in the often tumultuous times she wrote them, perhaps even more. Besides being one of our favorite authors, she's also one of our favorite human beings. A bright burst of light in a dark sea of humanity.

    How did you first hear of Savitri Devi, and what was your first impression of her?

    I first heard of Savitri Devi in 2000. I was shown a copy of Impeachment of Man and Goodrick-Clarke’s Hitler’s Priestess. My first impression was that Savitri Devi was one of history’s great eccentrics. I am fascinated with human eccentricity, and that is what first led me to read her works. History is often stranger and more entertaining than fiction. Who could have made up Savitri Devi? She was utterly unique.

    But as I read more of Savitri Devi’s works, I found her ideas increasingly appealing. So I suppose you can say that she made an eccentric out of me too, although I already was pretty far out of the mainstream. I was already familiar with and broadly sympathetic to National Socialism, Indo-European paganism, and the Traditional cyclical conception of history. I also shared her fascination with Akhnaton and the ancient world in general. But I was very impressed with how Savitri Devi synthesized these ideas and interests. She never claimed to be an original thinker, but I think she was too modest.

    You are the Archivist of the online Savitri Devi Archive and the General Editor of the Centennial Edition of Savitri Devi’s Works, which reprints Savitri Devi’s published works, and prints previously unpublished ones as well. Tell us about these projects. What motivated you to begin this massive undertaking?

    The goal of the Archive and the Centennial Edition is to make Savitri Devi’s works more accessible. When I first began reading Savitri Devi, it took me months to get copies of her books. Eventually, when the Archive and the Centennial Edition are complete, all of Savitri Devi’s books will be available for free online and can be easily purchased in high quality print editions.

    I should note, though, that the Centennial Edition will not be a complete edition of Savitri Devi’s writings. We have no plans to reprint her doctoral dissertations, for instance. Nor will we republish works in their original languages. Instead, we plan to reprint all of Savitri Devi’s English-language books, plus English translations of L’Etang aux Lotus and Souvenirs et réflexions d’une Aryenne—plus Tyrtée l’Athenien and Hart wie Kruppstahl, if we can acquire the full manuscripts. But eventually we will put all of Savitri Devi’s writings, in the original languages and all translations, online at the Savitri Devi Archive

    Even though the Savitri Devi Archive is a treasure trove of information, what information do you still seek? Are there periods of her life you are still in the dark about? Is there any possibility of the existence of unknown, unpublished books or articles

    Savitri Devi’s years in Greece are the most mysterious part of her life, particularly the years 1932-1935. In her writings and interviews, Savitri claims that she was in India from the spring of 1932 until the spring of 1935, when she returned to Europe to defend her doctoral dissertation, on April 1, 1935.

    Dr. Greg Johnson, who is doing research for a new biography of Savitri Devi, discovered that this story is a lie. In 2004, in the Indian National Archive in New Delhi, he found a copy of Savitri Devi’s original application for a Visa to visit India. It is dated April 2, 1935—i.e., the day after she defended her doctoral dissertation in Lyons. It was filled out at the British Consulate in Lyons.

    It is not known why Savitri Devi lied so consistently about her whereabouts in the years 1932-1935.

    Savitri Devi also maintained that she met her future husband A. K. Mukherji in Calcutta in January of 1938, after his pro-Axis publication The New Mercury had been closed down. His family, however, claims that they met in Europe before she came to India, and this has been confirmed by Dr. Johnson’s archival research as well.

    Dr. Johnson hypothesizes that both lies are related. He thinks that Savitri lied about when she met Mr. Mukherji to conceal the fact that she had been involved with the publication of The New Mercury. So if you want to find one source of lost articles by Savitri Devi, I recommend that one track down The New Mercury. Unfortunately, no copies seem to exist in libraries in India, Europe, or the United States. If anyone comes across old issues, please contact me through the Savitri Devi Archive.

    What about the lie concerning her whereabouts in 1932-1935? We know that at least part of that time she was in Greece, where she was the French tutor of Cornelius Castoriadis, who later became famous in France as a left-wing political philosopher.

    Dr. Johnson has a rather intriguing hypothesis about that period. Savitri Devi mentioned in And Time Rolls On that before Mr. Mukherji returned to India, he spent two years traveling in the U.S.S.R. doing research for his doctoral dissertation on British and Russian foreign policy in relation to Afghanistan and India. She also mentions that he traveled first class, and that the Communists were trying to groom him as a spy in India.

    Surely there is a file on Mr. Mukherji somewhere in the archives of the Soviet secret police. And if that file were opened, would it also reveal that Savitri Devi was his traveling companion? Some day, the archives may tell.

    What is your personal favorite book by Savitri and why?

    My personal favorite is Souvenirs et réflexions d’une Aryenne (Memories and Reflections of an Aryan Woman) because it is the most comprehensive and beautiful statement of the full range of Savitri Devi’s ideas in relation to the Tradition. She wrote it at the end of her life, for the benefit of a circle of French friends and admirers including the writers Saint-Loup and Guy Sajer.

    I am also very fond of And Time Rolls On, because I labored so long to produce it, and I am very proud of it. Whenever I read it, I can still hear Savitri’s taped voice in my head.

    Regarding the original editions of her books, what would you say is the most difficult to obtain? Are they pricey? Do you yourself own them?

    I own first editions of most of Savitri Devi’s books. All of Savitri Devi’s first editions are quite rare. She had 100 hardcover copies of Souvenirs printed, for personal friends, and I managed to get five copies, but I sold or gave away four of them. Savitri also had small hardcover printings of The Lightning and the Sun and Pilgrimage made. I have one of each.

    Even rarer are Savitri Devi’s books with hand-painted dust-jackets. I know of such jackets for Gold in the Furnace, Defiance, and Long-Whiskers and the Two-Legged Goddess. I have one of the Gold in the Furnace jackets, and a friend who has another has promised to leave it to me in her will.

    But surely the rarest Savitri Devi title is A Perfect Man: Akhnaton, King of Egypt. She lists this as having been already published in Joy of the Sun, which was published in 1942. But I have never been able to find a copy, not in any library or private collection, and Savitri made a point of donating her books to the British Library. The book may simply be lost to history, although a copy may someday turn up.

    Another possibility is that it was never published at all. Savitri could have listed it in Joy of the Sun, thinking that it would be published by the time Joy of the Sun appeared. But then she could have changed her mind and decided not to publish it. Or the project could have grown into her great book on Akhnaton, A Son of God: The Life and Philosophy of Akhnaton, King of Egypt, later republished as Son of the Sun. I think that this is the most likely story. (Notice that the subtitles of the two books are similar.) But perhaps I just want to convince myself that one of Savitri’s books has not been lost entirely.

    The prices of Savitri Devi’s used books that appear online have been steadily rising, largely due to the existence of the Archive. In the past, when used booksellers received copies of one of Savitri’s books, I imagine they did not know what to do with them. I hate to think some were just thrown away, but that is possible. Now, if they are curious, they can go online and in a few minutes learn that Savitri Devi was a widely-published author whose works are intensely interesting to a small but growing audience of enthusiasts.

    When I first went online searching for Savitri’s books, I found an autographed copy of Pilgrimage that had belonged to Muriel Gantry for £10. Recently, I saw a first edition of Defiance offered for more than $3,000! Although this might be bad for individual collectors who are not rich, it is definitely good for the preservation of Savitri Devi’s books, and that is a good thing in the long run.

    What are your biggest obstacles to publishing Savitri Devi’s books?

    Although some printers have balked at the “objectionable” content of Savitri Devi’s books, I have never had trouble finding printers who simply want the business. The biggest obstacles, therefore, are money and time. I solved the money problem by taking advance orders for the books, which have allowed me to pay the printers up front. The time problem, however, remains intractable. I have a more than full-time job as it is, so sometimes I just lack the time to edit and publish books, follow up research leads, and keep the Archive updated.

    I find it to be very unfortunate that more people do not know of Savitri Devi’s writings. Your print runs are very low, at least in hard cover, limited to 200 hand numbered copies. Has this met the demand?

    So far, we have sold out of the hardcover editions of And Time Rolls On and Gold in the Furnace. We still have a few copies of Defiance. We have almost sold out of the paperback printing of And Time Rolls On. When we do, I will bring out a new expanded and illustrated paperback edition. Of course, if one sells out the print run of books like these, it might be too risky to do another print run of hundreds of copies. But we could always set the titles up with a print-on-demand company, and they can print exactly the number of copies needed, which would free us from tying up capital and storage space.

    Can you share any personal experiences you’ve had with people’s reactions to your publishing of Savitri Devi’s books or to the Savitri Devi Archive website?

    First of all, there have been no negative experiences. Nobody has contacted me to express disapproval of the very idea of the Archive or of republishing Savitri Devi’s works. There have been no attempts to shut down the Archive, attack it online, and the like.

    Second, the most positive personal outcomes from my work are the friendships I have made with people all over the world. Also gratifying in a personal way are the many kind letters and emails I have received from people who are enthusiastic about Savitri Devi and grateful for the Archive and the Centennial Edition.

    But personal consequences, positive and negative, are really not a motivating factor in my work. Of course I appreciate the fact that my experiences have been overwhelmingly positive. But, even if they had been overwhelmingly negative, I would have gone forward, for I do this out of a sense of duty: a duty to history, a duty to truth, and a duty of gratitude to Savitri Devi herself, this remarkable individual who has changed my life in countless ways.

    How would you personally describe Savitri and her works to someone who had never heard of her before?

    Savitri Devi’s personality is as fascinating as her ideas, so I stress both when trying to interest people. I also emphasize the extreme eccentricity of both her personality and her doctrines. These have to come out eventually, so there is no point in avoiding them. Moreover, they grab people’s attention like nothing else. Everyone wants to know more about the woman who worshiped Hitler as a divine avatar; the woman who criticized Hitler for being too kind; the woman who advocated animal rights but not human rights; the woman who would ban medical experiments on animals and do them on people instead—who would prefer to eat the flesh of an enemy than of an innocent lamb. But what is even more surprising than these views is the fact that Savitri Devi provides a consistent rationale for them.

    Can you tell us three things about Savitri that most people do not know?

    There are quite a few things about Savitri Devi that the world will not know until a new biography of her is published. A few years ago, Dr. Johnson interviewed a woman who knew Savitri Devi in New Delhi in the 1970s. She told him many things that I found interesting, even surprising. I am sure he will not be annoyed if I share three facts that come immediately to mind.

    First, she said that Savitri Devi’s favorite painter was Van Gogh, and that she admired Picasso as well.

    Second, she said that Pushkin was one of Savitri Devi’s favorite poets.

    Third, she said that Savitri Devi was not just fluent in eight languages—English, French, German, Italian, Greek, Icelandic, Hindi, and Bengali—but that she had knowledge of nineteen other languages and dialects, including Russian and many Indian languages. She said that when Savitri Devi visited her house, she would converse with her in Greek, her husband and son in English, and address four Indian servants in their native dialects, moving effortlessly back and forth between all six languages. Her linguistic abilities alone indicate that Savitri Devi had an astonishingly high IQ.

    One astonishing aspect of Savitri is her humble attitude toward her own works and influence. Do you think she knew in her lifetime how important her works were and would be to National Socialists?

    Savitri Devi was very humble. I hesitate to accuse her of false modesty, but her modesty does ring false, because she was obviously a superior individual, and she knew it.

    But perhaps Savitri Devi’s modesty is a sign of her greatness of soul, in the sense discussed by Aristotle in his Nicomachean Ethics. According to Aristotle, great-souled people are aware of their superiority, but they do not show it off or dwell on it, because only small people enjoy looking down on and lording it over others. Instead, great souled people seek to hide their sense of superiority.

    This dissimulation, which Plato and Aristotle called “irony,” is a form of falsehood, but it is forgivable, even laudable. What great-souled individuals crave is not to look down on inferiors, but to have equals and superiors, friends to enjoy and heroes or gods to worship.

    That is certainly true of Savitri Devi, who claimed quite candidly that she was a skeptic about the literal existence of the gods, but had an overwhelming desire to worship them nonetheless.

    All (false) modesty aside, I think that Savitri Devi strongly hoped that her books would become very important to National Socialists. In my short essay on Savitri Devi and Paul of Tarsus, “Enemy and Exemplar,” I argue that Savitri understood her project to be analogous to that of Saint Paul. Paul took the life and ideas of Jesus, a failed prophet or perhaps merely a would-be revolutionary (Savitri vacillated on this issue, but he was a failure either way), and created a religion that eventually triumphed over Rome and all of Europe.

    Savitri Devi wished to be the Saint Paul to Hitler’s Christ. She too took a failed political leader and transformed him into a divine avatar around which she hoped to crystallize a religion that would serve as a vehicle for the eventual triumph of his ideas. This is a remarkably grandiose ambition for such a modest lady!

    Her plans may be grandiose, but I hasten to add that this does not make them absurd or impracticable. After all, it took more than 300 years for Paul’s creation to triumph over Rome.

    Savitri Devi died in 1982. Since then, interest in her works has grown dramatically. The religion she envisioned may indeed be taking shape. I would love to know what sort of impact Savitri Devi will have three centuries hence. If there are any white people left on the planet, I would like to think that Savitri Devi would have played no small part in ensuring their survival.

    Savitri wanted very badly to go to Germany during Adolf Hitler’s time. World War II prevented her from ever going and seeing the nation and people she idolized and loved so much in her writings. But if she had, how do you think Adolf Hitler and the others would have received her? She said she would have loved to have worked under Goebbels, and I can’t think of a place that would have suited her better.

    I think that Savitri Devi would have been well-received by German National Socialists. She would have impressed them as a sincere, intelligent, talented, and energetic National Socialist. I am sure that they would have found a way to fully mobilize her talents for the cause. Even her eccentricities would not have held her back, for the National Socialist leadership was filled with artistic, even bohemian types and remarkably free of bourgeois prigs. I am sure that she would have met Goebbels, Hess, Streicher, Himmler, and Hitler himself. I think she probably would have gotten along best with Hitler, Hess, and Goebbels, in spite of her great admiration for Himmler and Streicher.

    I doubt, however, that Savitri Devi alone could have changed the outcome of the war. I imagine that she would have been in the bunker in Berlin to the bitter end. She might have preferred such a heroic death, but personally I am glad that she lived on to write her books.

    In her extensive travels and contacts Savitri met some of the greatest heroes of Germany’s National Socialist era: Leon Degrelle, Hans-Ulrich Rudel, and Otto Skorzeny, to name just three! But she also met with others like Horst Wessel’s aunt and Heinrich Himmler’s widow. She met hundreds of other personalities from that era spread all over the world, including SS men in the Middle East. What do you think they thought of her? This National Socialist from India of all places!

    From all accounts, Savitri Devi was held in high regard by virtually everyone who knew her. I have only encountered a couple of people who disliked her. Savitri Devi impressed people with her intelligence, breadth of knowledge, sincerity, and devotion to National Socialism. Many, I am sure, were skeptical of her metaphysical and religious beliefs, but National Socialists tend to be tolerant of such views because they are not uncommon in these circles.

    Before and during the Second World War, Savitri Devi and her husband A. K. Mukherji worked as agents of the Axis powers in India. Did Savitri Devi know Subhas Chandra Bose, the Indian nationalist leader who allied himself with the Third Reich and the Japanese against the British Empire?

    Savitri Devi knew Subhas Chandra Bose. She met him in Calcutta in the late 1930s. She claims that she introduced him to her future husband, Mr. Mukherji, who in turn introduced him to the Japanese. And the rest, as they say, is history.

    Although National Socialist Germany pioneered animal rights, banning vivisection, strict laws regarding habitat, humane treatment of animals, hunting regulations, etc., Savitri is seen as a modern champion of animal rights. Impeachment of Man was first published in 1959 dealing with this subject in a time when animal rights were far from the public’s mind. But, unfortunately, it would seem humanity has grown even more selfish and cruel in their treatment of animals since her book. One need only look at the Animal Liberation Front’s video’s on YouTube.com or anywhere else online to see some of the horrors we humans inflict upon animals. Many respected scientists say that the earth won’t be able to sustain a meat eating human population for much longer. The strain on the earth is enormous, ethical concerns aside. Like Adolf Hitler, Savitri was a vegetarian. Do you think this is the way of the future? Your thoughts on all of this.

    Impeachment of Man is an admirable book, with many valid points. The world would be a much better place if everyone followed its teachings. But in the end, I find its argument for vegetarianism to be unconvincing.

    I too love nature, and I love animals. I love my dog especially. But my dog eats meat, and so do I. That is the way of nature. Some animals eat plants. Others eat animals. I eat both. And killing is involved in both cases. Life feeds on death, and that goes for vegetarians too. As Joseph Campbell said, “A vegetarian is someone who has never heard a carrot scream.”

    I tried vegetarianism, but I did not feel as healthy as I do when I include a small amount of animal protein in my diet, mostly from milk and eggs, but also from meat. I go to great lengths, however, to avoid supporting factory farms and other sickening forms of cruelty to animals. There is nothing natural about that. They are spawned from perversions of the human mind and soul, the marriage of greed and scientific method, to the exclusion of moral and aesthetic sensibilities.

    But by the same token, I go to great lengths not to harm plants as well. I can’t bear to weed my own garden. But the principle is the same for plants and animals: I eat some of them, but I also wish to do them the least possible harm. Of course, I can feel more sympathy for animals than plants, because they are more like me. Especially cute animals. But I have no problem killing repulsive and dangerous animals.

    I think that vegetarianism is a valid spiritual discipline if one wants somehow to transcend nature. But I do not wish to transcend nature at all. I wish to be a wholly natural being, and I think that is most in keeping with the spirit of Savitri Devi’s life-affirming pantheism.

    Savitri Devi was against anthropocentrism—the idea that man is unique and placed above nature. She thought that anthropocentrism was the root of all environmental destruction and cruelty to animals. Yet vegetarianism is a practice that sets one outside and above nature too.

    Sadly, Savitri died in England on October 22, 1982 before going on a planned speaking tour in the United States. In all her travels she never made it to the United States. Ironically, her urn and ashes were sent to the United States. Do you know where they were sent and to who? That was twenty seven years ago, any idea who has them today? Have you ever heard of anyone ever going to see her urn? There is a beautiful picture of it enshrined that I’m sure you're familiar with.

    I asked Commander Matt Koehl of the New Order about the present location of Savitri’s ashes. He told me that they are enshrined at the New Order headquarters in Milwaukee. Visitation is not allowed.

    Lastly, we’d like to thank you very, very much for helping to share this marvelous woman with the world, and for having this conversation with us! We would also like to thank Savitri for being everything that she was. A higher human being. Defiant till the end. A Woman Against Time. Final thoughts?

    Thank you for this opportunity to talk about one of my favorite people. When I think about Savitri Devi’s long and lonely struggle to live and witness the truth, your interest touches me deeply. It makes me think that her struggles were not in vain, that she will live on in the way that mattered to her most: in the hearts and minds of a National Socialist community that will survive to face the dawn of a new Golden Age.
    THE DEVIL'S DICTIONARY 1911 EJECTION, n. An approved remedy for the disease of garrulity. It is also much used in cases of extreme poverty. Harshest ejections and death to the Fuh

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    Life is Worship:
    Savitri Devi’s Son of the Sun
    Mark Brundsen

    Savitri Devi endures as an enigmatic figure in recent history. She is probably best known as “Hitler’s Priestess,”[1] a fiercely unrepentant and mystically inclined supporter of National Socialist Germany. She is probably remembered this way because it best allows us to compartmentalize her views. If she is remembered at all, it will be due to her precise lack of “pure evil,” that uncanny quality which is attributed to other Nazi figures for the purpose of dismissing them. The paradox she embodies, of an affirming and loving Nazi, is too incomprehensible for some to even consider.

    As a result, Savitri Devi remains a compelling avenue into a more realistic historical view of Nazism; her writings reveal an implicit worldview that is actively contested and dynamic, a possibility inconceivable to many who accept the ossified and monolithic post WWII view of Nazism. This is not to say that her views should replace what other knowledge we have of the movement, but that they should reveal to us the multiple dimensions of it, of which hers is but a part. For this reason Savitri Devi offers valuable lessons both to today’s National Socialists, who can learn to support an ideal less derived from a botched view of history (and polar opposition to it), and to those passive acceptors of that orthodoxy of evil, built by their fear upon sketchy conjecture.

    It is with this in mind that I’d like to consider her work Son of the Sun: The Life and Philosophy of Akhnaton, King of Egypt,[2] written during World War II, while the author remained in India, far from the calamity in Europe, anxiously watching the tragedy of her movement. The text is a thorough examination of Akhnaton’s life as an apostate Pharaoh and the details of his cult of the solar power, the Aton.

    The book is divided into three sections: a description of the King’s early life, up to and including his ascension and his replacement of the national religion; a discussion of the particulars and implications of Atonism; and an exposition of the resultant decline of Egypt due to Akhnaton’s refusal to compromise his beliefs, which concludes with a chapter considering the lessons for people today to be gleaned from Akhnaton’s life and religion.

    The final chapter reveals Savitri Devi’s ultimate purpose, which she states herself, namely to present for consideration the intellectual work of a forgotten hero: an ancient, but strikingly contemporary belief system which she believed had the potential to light the way beyond the impasse of the modern mindset, crippled by the severance of science (or rationality) and religion, broadly conceived.

    Savitri Devi’s style reveals her personality; reading Son of the Sun one can see a highly dedicated and passionate thinker at work, who is content to scare up any information (however creatively employed) to further her thesis. This might come as a shock to the contemporary reader today, overly concerned with the lure of objectivity in history, and is not helped by the fact that at the time there were but a fraction of the studies of Akhnaton available today.

    Savitri Devi unapologetically uses her imagination to speculate on the details of the King’s life (in particular her description of Akhnaton’s upbringing, of his high regard for his wife, of life in his new capital Akhetaton, and the extent to which Akhnaton grasped intuitively facts which modern science has since described). This doesn’t always come across as scholarly, regardless of her repeated affirmation of the value of rationality.

    Savitri Devi considers her duty to discuss Akhnaton as a genius, a spiritual and intellectual master, and approaches her task in an active, creative manner. To accommodate this fact, one must be content to regard Son of the Sun as an exposition of Savitri Devi’s own ideas as much as of the life of Akhnaton. If one can accept this, Son of the Sun is a rich and rewarding read.

    The first section of the work serves mainly to present the context in which Akhnaton’s life began, and also helps the reader become acquainted with Savitri Devi’s style. Savitri Devi seems intoxicated in her description of Imperial Egypt; she devotes considerable time to descriptions of the wealth and power at the disposal of its King, and the reach of his reign, which involved both economic and religious influence. Similarly canvassed is Akhnaton’s early life, the details of which she admits are inferred from what is known about the man’s later life (p. 19). She does so at length, including speculation about the origins or influences of what was to become his religion.

    Some time after the prince became Pharaoh, and having undergone an inner religious change, he erected a temple consecrated to the god Aton, a solar deity already worshiped in Egypt, perhaps synonymous with Ra. Whilst the walls of the temple contain images of Aton with Amon and other national gods, sometime later the King’s tolerance waned and all religious iconography save that of Aton was removed. This is the central historical trace of Akhnaton’s reforms: the influential priests of Amon were prevented from practicing officially, and Atonism was declared the only legitimate religion. Akhnaton’s problem, however, was that his innovative pantheist religion didn’t appeal to the lay people, and Savitri Devi speculates that even his devotees may have just been zealous for acceptance or promotion. Akhnaton’s resolve involved the construction of a new capital of Egypt, again gloriously and creatively described.

    The second section consists of an examination of Atonism, predominantly via a close reading of Akhnaton’s two surviving hymns (of which multiple translations are provided as an appendix), and thus contains both Akhnaton’s and Savitri Devi’s central ideas. In the hymns, Akhnaton refers to Aton, the disk of the sun, by various other terms. The term that interests Savitri Devi is “Shu-which-is-in-the-disk,” with “Shu” denoting both heat and light. She compares this use to Akhnaton’s similar references to the roarings of thunder and lightning, which he assimilates with Aton. Savitri Devi uses these two strands of evidence to suggest that Akhnaton had a profound conception of energy, heat and light, regarding them as ultimately equivalent, a fact which has ostensibly been validated by scientific investigation.

    Evidence of this realization prompted Sir Flinders Petrie, in his History of Egypt, which Savitri Devi cites (p. 293), to remark “If this were a new religion invented to satisfy our modern scientific conceptions, we could not find a flaw in the correctness of [Akhnaton’s] view of the energy of the solar system.” Sir Wallis Budge is quoted as claiming that Akhnaton worshiped only a material object, the literal sun, but Savitri Devi rejects this by citing instances in which Akhnaton refers to the Sun’s Ka, its soul or essence. Budge also admits to Akhnaton’s view of the Disk as self-created and self-subsistent, which is a marked distinction from the older Heliopolitan cults which included a creator figure.

    Akhnaton seems to have followed this rational religious approach consistently. His teaching is entirely void of mythological narrative, tales of miracles, and metaphysics. Savitri Devi’s thesis in conceiving the religion of the Disk is that Akhnaton saw and worshiped divinity in life itself.

    In the hymns Akhnaton asserts the earthly origin of the Nile and equates its gifts with other rivers and also rain, a departure from the common view of the divine origin of the Nile, or whatever was one’s source of water. Akhnaton similarly asserts his own earthly origin, as opposed to the accepted practice of each Pharaoh claiming a divine birth. Akhnaton thus retains his direct divine connection—he calls himself the Son of Ra—but translates the divine conception to one that is unambiguously physical.

    The probability of the religion’s emphasis on immanence is bolstered by the absence of idolatry. Akhnaton worships neither “a god . . . in the image of a man, nor even an individual power,” but an “impersonal reality” (p. 141). This is consistent also with a lack of moral prescriptions contained within the cult, with only the value (which Akhnaton applies to himself, via a regular moniker) of “living-in-truth”: a particular spirit involved in one’s actions (p. 193) is what is of import.

    Such an absence does not, however, prevent Savitri Devi from suggesting what that spirit might value by examining the hymns. Whilst many commentators had earlier stressed Akhnaton’s internationalism and “conscientious objection to warfare” (Weigall quoted in the text, p. 150), and his love of all human beings, Savitri Devi reads the hymns less anthropocentrically. She argues that the hymns express “the brotherhood of all sentient beings, human and non-human” (p. 150, emphasis in original), and that animals by their very nature worshiped the Ka of the Disk, thereby blurring the lines between man and beast, or the material and metaphysical (so assertively maintained by Jewish, Greek and Christian thought). Plants are also included in the hymn, though not as such active agents as animals.

    Savitri Devi’s discussion culminates in her assertion that Akhnaton was against anthropocentrism: the idea that man is a unique and privileged being and that the environment’s only value is its utility to man (p. 161). Her own views on this subject are more fully developed in Impeachment of Man. In proposing such a life-centered view, Savitri Devi precedes even Aldo Leopold’s seminal essay The Land Ethic (1949), which is generally regarded as the year zero for modern environmental ethics and Deep Ecology. Needless to say, our aim in mentioning this is not to posit Savitri Devi as the mother of such developments, for the intellectual mainstream has no interest in her ideas and thus they have had little influence.

    Savitri Devi also reads Akhnaton’s hymns as supporting a benevolent nationalism. Whilst Akhnaton perceived the brotherhood of all creatures (uniting humanity by the fact of their singular relation to the Aton), he also believes that the Aton “settest every man in his place” which includes the division of “strange” (as in differing) peoples (p. 158 note). Here Savitri Devi discusses at length the rights of all peoples to self-determination and her fierce opposition to imperialism.

    Finally, Savitri Devi speculates upon Akhnaton’s view of women, expressed by the fact that, contrary to custom, he only had one wife (although this has subsequently been found to be false) and by the inclusion of Nefertiti in the hymns, seemingly as an equal to Akhnaton. She does admit, however, that we do not know in what way or to what degree the Queen understood her husband’s religion.

    The final section of the book focuses on the outcomes of the Pharaoh’s world view. Because of his neglect of imperial politics, sanctioned by his beliefs, the state declined. In a number of conquered territories, loyal vassals, under threat of invasions and uprisings, desperately appealed for help to the Pharaoh, to whom they’d paid significant regular tribute. Akhnaton refused to intervene, and scarcely replied to their letters, most of which have been preserved; he even postponed an audience with a messenger for months.

    Whilst other historians have read this apathy as selfishness, Savitri Devi gives Akhnaton the benefit of the doubt and explains this non-action with his belief in the self-determination of tribes and nations, and sees this tragic bloodshed as the only avenue in a no-win situation, the real test of the Pharaoh’s principles. Either he could have suppressed the uprisings with bloodshed, which would have kept the enmity alive, or he could sanction an ultimate sacrificial conflict, which would end the escalatory cycle of violence, both oppressive and resistant. This approach stands in contrast to the imperatives dictated by modern individualism, which has no mechanism to halt such a process.

    Needless to say, such an outcome was political suicide, and Savitri Devi goes on to speculate on what could have been if Akhnaton attempted instead to expand his religion by use of his power, describing a worldwide spread of the cult. However, that would be contrary to the very essence of the religion itself, which is elitist, reliant as it is upon a deep intuition of the essence of the universe and being. Thus Akhnaton’s destiny, to be forgotten and to have his religion abolished with hostility, was to Savitri Devi, “the price of perfection.” Savitri Devi concludes the work with directly considering the religion’s suitability to Aryans today.

    It should be clear from this exposition that there are some conflicting ideas in Son of the Sun, which should impel us to consider Savitri Devi as more than a partisan propagandist for evil. Unfortunately, whilst Savitri Devi spends excessive energy on repeating and emphasizing her theses (to the extent that the work is unnecessarily lengthy), she for the most part neglects some points of conflict, such that they remain unresolved in the text. That is not to say that they undermine Savitri Devi’s aims, but that opportunities for developing her ideas are left untouched, quite probably because she saw no necessary tension, whereas contemporary readers likely will.

    Central are the conflicts between her affirmation of the universalist view of life versus the division of the human races, and her heralding of Akhnaton as the world’s first individual versus her support for his anti-individual policies. These difficulties ultimately dissolve when one makes some subtle distinctions, which are so often neglected by both nationalists and their opponents today, most likely due to an orthodox reading of WW II.

    The aims of nationalism do not necessarily coincide with imperialism, and Savitri Devi adamantly distinguishes between them. The fact that humanity is a brotherhood under the Aton similarly does not demand that all cultures assimilate their differences; on the contrary it encourages them to celebrate their different paths of life and worship.

    The revelation of universal brotherhood also doesn’t compel Savitri Devi to adopt a populist stance: she supports Akhnaton’s refusal to dilute his religion for the masses, who would only pervert it. People today might complain of a “double standard” in the hierarchy of rights in Egypt, but Savitri Devi naturally regards these differences as superior to a blanket egalitarian stance.

    Akhnaton’s unwillingness to accommodate the masses is poetic and pure but futile. This raises the question of the validity of elite rule entirely, for if it is right but can never be properly established, what value is there in theorizing and championing it? The political norm today is only more populist, with the expectation of universal suffrage, linked as it is to the concept of humanity. René Guénon warns against such rule when he states that “the opinion of the majority cannot be anything but an expression of incompetence.”[3] But once those powers have been granted, how can the situation possibly be reversed? This riddle is perennial, being as it is the central question of politics, and we oughtn’t expect Savitri Devi to solve it for us. Savitri Devi, like many others today, can only take bitter solace in the belief that her ideas, like Akhnaton’s, have the value of truth, regardless of the reckoning of the masses.

    Similarly, Savitri Devi provides a gushing account of Akhnaton’s imperial wealth and status, which she states is “the prize of war” (p. 14), whilst subsequently affirming Akhnaton’s refusal to maintain such a state, his principle of the right of self-determination, and his belief that war was “an offence to god” (p. 242). Akhnaton’s position can be excused by the fact that he was born into a certain situation and did his best not to leave it as he found it, but to try to improve the long term state of affairs as he perceived it. Savitri Devi, however, does not cover this in the text.

    But Savitri Devi’s view also stands in contrast to her unending support of National Socialist Germany, despite writing Son of the Sun during the years of war. We must firstly of course grant her the dignity of having ideals superior to her compromised political affiliations, much as any other supporter of a political party maintains an identity separate from party policy. But Savitri Devi also acknowledges the unfortunate need of a morally compromising force of change in her Europe when she notes that “violence is the law of any revolution within Time” (p. 241 emphasis in original). She regards Akhnaton as a man “above Time,” who stood by his ideals only to have them dashed, in implied contrast to Hitler (hitherto implicitly paralleled with the Pharaoh), who recognized the above axiom (a line of thought developed in her later work The Lightning and the Sun). Savitri Devi doesn’t make explicit her views on Lebensraum, though it seems that if some of her ideals are open to compromise by political necessity, then expansion may be no exception.

    She is also keen to display continuity between Akhnaton’s solar cult, Hinduism, and modern National Socialism, by attempting to make various biological linkages with the former two ideas and stressing the cultural common ground of the centrality of the sun, and the importance of beauty, caste and principle. Ultimately the cultural connections are far greater than the biological ones, and culturally National Socialism could not match its predecessors.

    Savitri Devi does evaluate the replacement of a severed religion-state relationship with a unity in the idea of the “religion of Race” (p. 288). Whilst she initially approves of a move back to such a material and spiritual unity, she criticizes it for being too narrow in its scope to be fruitful. She likens it to a return to the “national gods of old,” which were, notably, what Akhnaton’s revolution superseded. Ultimately, Savitri Devi cannot endorse such a goal; whilst it may be better than the ideas of its “humanitarian antagonists” (p. 288), it remains a narrower denotation than “man” and thus can permit both the anthropocentric exploitation of nature and the selective exploitation of other humans.

    Such a reduction imposed upon the “Religion of Life” is untenable, and Savitri Devi would rather one aim the other way, recognizing “cosmic values as the essence of religion” (p. 289). This seems similar to Julius Evola’s rejection of the National Socialist’s biological view of race, which he replaced with a spiritual racial concept. Such a view, whilst playing a secondary role to her courageous optimism about National Socialism, shows us that Savitri Devi sought to refine the movement she supported and that it in no way compelled her to limit her thought.

    The complexities and seeming contradictions in Savitri Devi’s thought, particularly as they relate to her political convictions, are certainly not impasses and shouldn’t lead us to dismiss her thought and remember only her action. On the contrary, they should compel us to challenge our conception of her actions (and the National Socialist context itself) in order to accommodate her thought. Viewed in this light, it is Savitri Devi’s political convictions that now strike us as anomalous; she poured unending faith into the post-war National Socialist movement (which surely could not have come close to living up to her ideals), ultimately in vain, which can only have damaged her reputation as a writer.

    The historical accuracy of Son of the Sun is not of central importance. Savitri Devi skillfully utilized history to select and develop a religion that unified the rational and spiritual needs of humanity, whilst portraying at its summit a genius-hero worthy of any attempts at emulation. This is the primary achievement of the work. Whilst the modern fetish for authenticity is strong, it is ultimately trumped by the modern fetish for originality and novelty. Atonism, of course, has not been adopted by anybody. But its naturalistic and aesthetic approach to life, and its lack of moral prescription, is an invaluable lesson to modern people. Son of the Sun itself is an achievement of the very solar spirit it upholds. Akhnaton, King of Egypt, and Savitri Devi can both teach us the truth that life is worship.


    1. The title of a recent biography: Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Hitler’s Priestess: Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan, Myth and Neo-Nazism (New York: New York University Press, 2000).

    2. A Son of God: The Life and Philosophy of Akhnaton, King of Egypt (London: Philosophical Publishing House, 1946), later republished as Son of the Sun: The Life and Philosophy of Akhnaton, King of Egypt (San Jose, California: A.M.O.R.C., 1956).

    3. René Guénon, The Crisis of the Modern World, trans. M. Pallis and R. Nicholson (London: Luzac, 1962), p. 72.
    THE DEVIL'S DICTIONARY 1911 EJECTION, n. An approved remedy for the disease of garrulity. It is also much used in cases of extreme poverty. Harshest ejections and death to the Fuh

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    FIPS is offline I'm going to Auschwitz, love & kisses, one happy fella
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    Akhnaton was no hero. He tried to radically modify a culture that had done well for 1500 years (who else can say this?), in order to distract attention from his mother's negritude. Sounds like a Jew to me.

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    I always thought of Devi as a nut, primarily because Feral House published or at least sold her works. Schreck and those other satanists.

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    Nazi Germany itself always had far too much of a weird Asian fetish for my tastes and Devi is evidence of how it could have become very dangerous. Her marrying an Indian is a factoid that almost everyone gives her a pass on, and if you look at a picture of the guy, in no way would he be acceptably white by European standards - not that a European should be marrying such a person under any circumstances.
    My site: http://www.westernrevival.org

    "The white men were roused by a mere instinct of self-preservation... until at last there had sprung into existence a great Ku Klux Klan, a veritable empire of the South, to protect the Southern country." -- Woodrow Wilson, History of the American People.

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    Fascinating stuff - never knew about this person. Thanks for bumping it.

  9. #9
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    Jan 2008
    5280 Feet of Shit


    Quote Originally Posted by Joe McCarthy View Post
    Her marrying an Indian is a factoid that almost everyone gives her a pass on, and if you look at a picture of the guy, in no way would he be acceptably white by European standards - not that a European should be marrying such a person under any circumstances.
    Weird broad. Reminds me of other "pro-whites" I've encountered. One on Buzzen with a Korean wife and a mongrel child he doesn't like me calling a mongrel that reads AmRen religiously. Something isn't firing between the ears. Then again, we see that with some posters here and on other forums.
    RIP Brunn.

    "You don't get movie reviews like this from Roger Ebert." -- Zed

    "Every day I get up and hit it." -- Bill Clinton

    "You voracious man-eating son of a bitch, there was seven Democrats in Hinsdale County and you ate five of them. God damn you!" -- Melville Gary, Democrat

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  10. #10
    FIPS's Avatar
    FIPS is offline I'm going to Auschwitz, love & kisses, one happy fella
    Join Date
    Jan 2009
    Auschwitz Open Pit Grill an' Sausagery


    Quote Originally Posted by Empress Cheesatine View Post
    Weird broad. Reminds me of other "pro-whites" I've encountered. One on Buzzen with a Korean wife and a mongrel child he doesn't like me calling a mongrel that reads AmRen religiously. Something isn't firing between the ears. Then again, we see that with some posters here and on other forums.

    Especially if he knows his anthropology. All the billions of east asian slant cunts likely originated in the Korean peninsula nearly 40000 years ago.

    Stumble Inn Proudly Presents the Most Racist Screed of all Time Posying as a Novel by...Fips! - http://stumbleinn.net/fips/bloodlines.html


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